Last week I was having issues with my Hackintosh. The disk was corrupting even after using Time Machine to restore the computer. By accident I learned how to do a “repair installation”, a feature I thought was missing from the OS X installer.
When installing OS X if you do not reformat your HDD/SDD, the installer will simply write overtop of the existing installation keeping your personal files/settings intact.
I found this extremely helpful and since I never could find an answer to this question on the internet I thought I would share. Enjoy!